Back to Publications

Case 4 “On Civilian Harm”: Essential infrastructure

In June 2014, the Israeli Defence Forces bombed a power plant, as well as water and waste water management systems in the Gaza Strip. Access to clean drinking water consequently went far below minimum standards, the prices of bottled but unregulated water soared, and lack of water contributed to the outbreak of various waterbased diseases. The case shows the far-reaching effects of the destruction of water infrastructure, and brings into focus the impact of cascading effects: a key vulnerability of our increasingly urbanised world.

In ‘On Civilian Harm’, we explore the ways in which civilians are negatively affected by violent conflict, offer tools and language to discuss the phenomenon, make practical recommendations for civilian harm mitigation and raise questions for further debate. The book contains in-depth analysises of 13 particular events in which harm to civilians occurred as a consequence of use of armed violence. Taken together, they contribute to an increased understanding of the variety and complexity of civilian harm at a conceptual level, bringing out common traits and patterns on civilian harm in violent conflict.

About this report

Date of publication:

Jun 10, 2021


Saba Azeem (PAX)


PAX Protection of Civilians

More about the book 'On Civilian Harm'
Case 4 “On Civilian Harm”: Essential infrastructure

Jun 10, 2021, Saba Azeem (PAX)

Read the document here