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Recommendations paper: civilian harm response

As various security actors are developing CHM policy or working on its implementation, it is essential to also consider the matter of 'response': activities undertaken by security actors in reaction to civilian harm caused by their operations, regardless of lawfulness. This can include measures like providing acknowledgment, an apology, or monetary payments. The design and implementation of civilian harm response processes should be reflective of civilians needs and expectations.

In this recommendations paper, PAX has collected lessons learned as to what civilians may consider meaningful, effective and appopriate responses, and provides actionable recommendations for security actors on how to design a civilian-centered response process.

The recommendations paper is based on a review of available literature on civilian harm response, focused on those publications that directly reflect civilian perspectives on this topic. This literature review can be found here.

About this report

Date of publication:

Sep 18, 2023


Erin Bijl




September 2023

Recommendations paper: civilian harm response

Sep 18, 2023, Erin Bijl

Read the document here