Publications

  • Seventh Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    September 18, 2017

    Data collected during the period May - July 2017 from an extensive network of contacts on the ground shows that an estimated 821,210 Syrians are still living under siege in 34 communities in Damascus, Rural Damascus, Homs, Deir Ezzor, and Idlib governorates. Nearly 1.7 million additional people live in areas on the Siege Watch “Watchlist,” where they face siege-like conditions and are at risk of further decline. Siege Watch is published jointly by PAX and The Syria Institute.


  • Sixth Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    June 19, 2017

    Despite numerous United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions calling for unobstructed humanitarian access, and the creation of the International Syria Support Group’s (ISSG) Humanitarian Task Force (HTF) in February 2016 the Syrian government – and in a few cases the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) and armed opposition groups (AOGs) – continue to besiege communities across Syria.The so-called nationwide “ceasefire” declared by Russia and Turkey in December has existed in name only for most besieged communities. Violence in areas including Waer, Eastern Ghouta, Damascus city, and other parts of Rural Damascus has actually escalated since it was declared. Siege Watch is published jointly by PAX and The Syria Institute. The report focuses on the period February-April 2017.


  • Fifth Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    March 23, 2017

    The November 2016-January 2017 period was a challenging time for Syrians trapped in besieged communities across the country. All besieged communities faced violent attacks throughout the quarter, despite a nationwide ceasefire brokered by Russia and Turkey in late December 2016. Most besieged communities were not reached with UN assistance even once. In December 2016, pro-government forces captured eastern Aleppo in a brutal assault that led to depopulation of many of the besieged neighborhoods. Three more “Watchlist” communities – al-Tal, Khan al-Shieh, and Wadi Barada – submitted to forced surrender terms during the reporting period after facing renewed attacks. Siege Watch is published jointly by PAX and The Syria Institute.


  • Fourth Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    December 12, 2016

    This Siege Watch report focuses on the developments in Syria from August to October 2016. reveals that an estimated 1,326,175 remain people trapped in at least 39 besieged communities across the country. During this period, the Syrian government scaled up its attacks on communities under control of the opposition. The regime´s tactic toward residents in the besieged communities shifted from “surrender or starve” to “surrender or die”. After the end of this period, the UN announced that following a “comprehensive review” it increased its estimate of Syrians under siege to 974,080. The official UN population figures for besieged areas have nearly tripled since Siege Watch began reporting in late 2015, but even these new estimates fall short of the latest Siege Watch estimate.


  • Areas of Harm

    Understanding explosive weapons with wide area effect

    October 3, 2016

    In conflicts all over the world, in countries such as Syria, Ukraine and Yemen, the use of explosive weapons like mortars and rockets in populated areas is a major cause of humanitarian harm and civilian casualties. Against the background of international recognition of the humanitarian problems caused by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, a new report by PAX and Article36 analyses how certain explosive weapons create wide area effects.


  • Access to Justice: Perceptions of and Experience with Violent Crime in South Sudan

    Intersections of Truth, Justice and Reconciliation in South Sudan

    September 29, 2016

    This report investigates people’s perceptions and experiences with violent crimes in South Sudan, and the steps people take in pursuit of justice after experiencing a violent crime. The main data-collection was undertaken by means of a survey, for which 1,912 respondents were interviewed in November and early December 2015 in Juba town, Juba Protection of Civilian site (POC), Wau town and Bentiu POC. Qualitative information was gathered during subsequent interviews and workshops aimed at sharing, fine-tuning and verification of findings.


  • Perceptions of Transitional Justice

    Intersections of Truth, Justice and Reconciliation in South Sudan

    September 29, 2016

    This report investigates people’s perceptions and experiences of truth, justice and reconciliation in relation to the past and present conflicts in South Sudan. The main data-collection was undertaken by means of a survey, for which 1,912 respondents were interviewed in November and early December 2015 in Juba town, Juba Protection of Civilian site (POC), Wau town and Bentiu POC. Qualitative information was gathered during subsequent interviews and workshops aimed at sharing, fine-tuning and verification of findings.


  • Third Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    September 13, 2016

    The report reveals that an estimated 1,005,275 remain people trapped in at least 40 besieged communities across the country. The period May - July 2016 was characterized by high levels of violence and reduced humanitarian access. UN agencies and their donors should undertake a review of current reporting efforts and apply an independent and transparent designation process to ensure that data is not politicized. Siege Watch is published jointly by PAX and The Syria Institute. Siege Watch 3 focuses on the period May-July 2016.


  • Scorched Earth and Charred Lives

    Human health and environmental risks of civilian-operated makeshift oil refineries in Syria

    September 5, 2016

    Many Syrian civilians have begun refining oil due to the drastic decline in production by professional oil refineries in Syria. The conditions in these makeshift refineries are causing enormous health and environmental pollution problems in the region. The PAX report Scorched Earth and Charred Lives shows a sharp increase in the number of makeshift refineries in Syria’s oil rich Deir ez-Zor governorate, in the past four years, with the most recent analysis based on satellite images from June 2016. There are likely tens of thousands of makeshift refineries in the region, in which adults and an alarming number of children work. The consequences for public health and the environment are huge


  • Second Quarterly Report on Besieged Areas in Syria

    June 10, 2016

    This report is the second in a series of quarterly reports by Siege Watch – a joint initiative of PAX and The Syria Institute that aims to provide the international community with timely and accurate information on conditions in Syria’s besieged communities. Data collected during the period February-May 2016 from an extensive network of contacts across besieged areas in Syria shows that that the situation remains bleak for the estimated 1,015,275 people trapped in 46 besieged communities, despite an increased international focus on besieged areas.



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